5$ SHIPPING PRACTICE In the case of damaged cargo, the shipowner is entitled to full freight provided he delivers the cargo; if, however, the goods are lost in transit no freight is earned. In addition to the foregoing there are several other types of freight; these are— Dead freight. Payment for space booked but not used. When by contract or charter-party space is booked for a definite quantity, and shippers fail to provide cargo, or do not provide the full amount agreed, then the owner is entitled to claim dead freight for unoccupied space. The shipowner, however, is not entitled to place himself in a better financial position by receiving dead freight in excess of the actual freight he would have earned by the carriage of the goods. Dead freight is therefore calculated by the amount of cargo which should have been carried, but which in fact was not, at the agreed rate of freight, less all charges which would have been incurred by the owner in the carriage of the goods, i.e. loading and discharging expenses. Dead freight is rarely demanded in cases where a shipper books space for a few cases in a berth shipment and fails to supply them. Back freight. Freight charged for the return of goods which have not been accepted at port of delivery. Should a shipper forward goods to a consignee who refuses to take delivery, the owner may either exercise his Hen—if freight has not been paid—and sell the goods, or return them to the shipper. The shipper is then charged with an additional amount of freight for their return, which is known as back freight. Another form of back freight is when goods have been overstowed or overcarried, through a wrong mark appear- ing on the case. For example, goods intended for Monte Video, and port-marked "Buenos Aires" would not be acces- sible at Monte Video, and would, therefore, have to be overcarried to Buenos Aires. There again back freight would be chargeable for the return of the goods from Buenos Aires to Monte Video, and if wrongly marked would be chargeable to the shipper.